Current research in brain development and learning
Several scientific studies    indicate that many neurons are activated and modified in learning and memory development and that these interactions between neurons can occur between different portions of the neurons. The neuron usually consists of the main portion, called “cell body (or soma)”, and two ends, the end containing a longer or shorter cellular extension, called “axon”, and an end containing smaller cellular extensions, called the “dendritic spines”. Synapses can occur between all of these cellular portions but in learning, the major part of the changes first affect synapses of the dendritic spines and then involve the other types of synapses. In this way, concepts, reasoning, and definitions are reinforced or lost, and at the same time, the ability to concentrate and pay attention is modified. Meditation itself can act on these circuits and can therefore play a role in strengthening your attention and awareness.   
The continuous remodeling of neural circuits is the basis of the development of the child’s brain, and it may also be the key to improve learning or attention disorders, such as autism or ADHD. In autism spectrum disorders, mutated genes alter the connectivity of the neural network and as a result, responses to precise stimuli are different from those of children who are considered normal.
Studies have created experiences that can restore normal connectivity and improve social orientations in ASD, by strengthening processes of elaboration and memorization.  Training programs have also worked with experience-based neuroplasticity in children with ADHD, compensating for the deficiencies present physically and improving school outcomes. 
Working with STRESS AND REHABILITATION
Stress, either physical or mental, makes neural connections slower and less efficient, making your response to a question or movement cue different depending on whether you’re feeling calm or stressed. It’s been shown that children, in particular, cannot learn when under stress or traumatized.
As we live with so much ambient stress these days, it’s important to be pro-active in training your body and helping children to train their bodies to be calm. It’s doubly important to know how to activate your relaxation responses, and how to undo the damage that stress has tolled on your body and mind.
Working under stress is a skill that can be acquired by repeating the context over time and learning from the mistakes. Mistakes that are made in a voluntary movement (as in the case of a pirouette jump), and corrections of the same, strengthen neural circuits that control the motor pattern of the movement itself, thus leading to better motor control the next time you make that movement.
Similarly, following an ischemic brain injury (a stroke) it is possible to recover optimal motor control in terms of both speech and movement. The cerebellum regulates the coordination of voluntary movements and presents a high degree of synaptic plasticity, which is at the basis of improved motor control. Through rehabilitation exercises or speech therapy, it is possible to improve performance, and often to restore lost skills over time.
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